46.   副詞節を導く接続詞


名詞節を導く接続詞は that,  whether,  if だけですが、副詞節を導く接続詞には、

たとえば、when,  because,  if  などの中学校でも学んだおなじみの接続詞のほか

as soon as,  as long as
so ~ that … no sooner ~ than


① 時を表す接続詞

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when(~するとき[時点]),  while(~する間に[期間]),  after(~したあとに),  before(~する前に),
as(~しながら、~するとき),  till [until](~するまで),  by the time(~するまでに),
since(~して以来),  once(いったん~すると),  every time(~するたびに),
as soon as,  directly,  the moment,  no sooner ~ than,
hardly [scarcely] ~ when [before] (~するとすぐに)


When he 〔 (〇) comes /  (✕) will come 〕,  I'll give him some money.

after,  before,  till [until],  by the time,  since の意味・用法は
それぞれ前置詞の after,  before,  till [until ],  by,  since に準じて考えればOK。



when,  while   時を表すほか、対照・譲歩を表すこともある。

I could not swim when I was a child.     〔時〕

We had only 3000yen when we needed 5000yen.
(私たちは5000円いるのに、3000円しかもっていなかった)   〔対照・譲歩〕

Some people eat too much while others are very hungry.


, when ~ 「そしてそのとき (and then)」
 , until ~ 「そしてついに (and at last)」      と前から訳す。

I was about to go out, when the telephone rang.

He ran and ran, until he came to an old hotel.


この , when の用法は、関係副詞の日制限用法とも考えられる。

not ~ until … 「…して初めて~」

I didn't know his success until I received his letter.


これを強調構文 It is ~ that … 「…は~だ」で表すと、

It was not until
I received his letter that I know his success.    となる。


It has been [is] ~ since ……してから~たつ」の意味。

It has been [is]
five years since I came here.
= Five years have passed since I came here.

as soon as,  no sooner ~ than など「~するとすぐに」の意味は、

As soon as
he entered the room, they stopped talking.
= The moment he entered the room, they stopped talking.
= The instant he entered the room, they stopped talking.

= He had ( scarcely / hardly ) entered the room ( when / before ) they
stopped talking.
= He had no sooner entered the room than they stopped talking.


強調のために scarcely,  hardlyno sooner が文頭に出ると、そのあとの語順が
Scarcely [ Hardly ] had he entered the room when [ before ]

No sooner had he entered the room than


② 理由・目的・結果を表す接続詞

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原因・理由 because,  since,  as,  now (that),  seeing that …
目的 so that ~ may [ can, will ] … (…するために)
in order that ~ may …
for fear (that) ~ should … (…するといけないから)
in case ~ should …
結果 so ~ that …,  such ~ that … (とても~なので…)


原因・理由 because,  since,  as などで表す。since,  as は時を表す

I was late because my car broke down.

Since English is an international language, studying it is very important.

As it was very cold, we went back home early.


等位接続詞の for は発言の根拠などの理由をあとから追加するのに用いられ、直接的な
原因・理由を表す because とは異なる。

Because he was tired, he went to bed at once.

He went to bed at once, for I heard him snoring.


目的「…するために」は so that ~ may [ can, will ] … で表す。

「…しないように」なら so that ~ may [ can, will ] not … となる。
that は、口語ではしばしば省略される。

I spoke slowly so (that) she might [ could, would ] understand me.

We kept silent so (that) we might [ would ] not wake up the baby.

He walked fast for fear (that) he should [ might, would ] be late.


for fear (that) ~should… は改まった表現です。
この代わりに、lest ~should…も用いられますが、これはさらにかたい表現。
なのでこの場合、should を用いずに仮定法現在を用いることもあります。

He walked fast lest he (should) be late. (上と同じ意味)

= He walked fast so (that) he might [ would ] not be late.


結果 「 so + 形容詞・副詞+ that…」「such (a [an]+形容詞)
 +名詞 +that…」を用いて、「とても~なので…」という意味を表す。
 such のあとには名詞がくることに注意。

It was so hot that I couldn't sleep.
= It was too hot for me to sleep.

There was such a large crowd that I could hardly move.

この that も口調では省略されることがある。
She was so angry she could not speak.


so ~ that … は程度を表すと考えることもできる。

It wasn't so hot that I couldn't sleep.

③ 条件・譲歩などを表す接続詞

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条件 if,  suppose (that),  supposing (that),  provided (that),
providing (that),  unless(もし~でなければ)
譲歩 though,  although,  形容詞・名詞 + as + S + V,
(even) if, even though (たとえ~でも),
whether ~ or … (~であろうと…であろうと),
no matter who [ how, when など ] (だれが〔いかに、いつ〕~しようとも)
様態 as (~のように、~の通りに)
範囲・制限 as [ so ] far as,   as [ so ] long as (~する限りは) 


条件 if  (もし~ならば),   unless ( ≒ if ~ not ) などで表す。

If you are right, I'm also right.

Don't come unless I tell you to.
= Don't come if I don't tell you to.

ただし、We'll be shocked if you don't win.  は、
We'll be shocked unless you win.
(君が勝たない限り、私たちはショックだ) とはちがう。


You won't win unless you practice hard.

= You will win only when you practice hard.

≒ You won't win if you don't practice hard.


次の例では unless は必ずしも if ~ not とイコールではないことに注意。

We'll be happy if it doesn't rain.
≠ We'll be happy unless it rains.  (雨が降らない限りうれしい)


条件を表す副詞節では、時を表す副詞節と同様、未来のことも will を用いず現在形で表す。
If it (〇)  rains   (✕)  will raintomorrow, I won't go out.

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譲歩 though は「~だけれども」、(even) if,  even though  は

no matter who [ how, when など] と同じ意味。

Though [ Although ] it was raining, he came.
= It was raining, but he came.

Whether sick or well, she is always cheerful.
( Whether she is sick or (she is) well,  を省略したもの)

Even if I fail, I'll try again.

Late as it was, we started.

Though it was late, we started.


No matter how hard he tried, he could not catch the fish.
= However hard he tried, he could not catch the fish.


様態 as を用いて表す。 As ~, so … の形になることもある。

Do as I told you.  (私が言ったようにしなさい)

Just as salt is necessary for cooking, so wit is necessary for conversation.


範囲・限界「~する限りは」の意味は、as [ so ] far as,
 as [ so ] long as などで表す。

As far as I know, he is loved by everybody.  〔空間的限界・範囲〕

Any book will do as long as it is interesting.   〔時間的限界・条件〕




as 「~しながら」〔時〕、「~ので」〔理由〕、「~のように」〔様態〕

since 「~以来」〔時〕、「~ので」〔理由〕

if 「もし~なら」〔条件〕 / (even) if 「たとえ~でも」〔譲歩〕

so that ~ may 〔目的〕/ so ~ that 〔結果〕